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Design and Clinical Risk Factors of the Cohort

Lynch, Anne M., MB, BCh, BAO, MSPH*; Patnaik, Jennifer L., PhD*; Cathcart, Jennifer N., MPH*; Mathias, Marc T., MD*; Siringo, Frank S., MD*; Lacey Echalier, E., MD*; Wagner, Brandie D., PhD; Oliver, Scott C.N., MD*; Pecen, Paula E., MD*; Olson, Jeffrey L., MD*; Fine, Stuart L., MD*; Palestine, Alan G., MD*; Mandava, Naresh, MD*

doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000002023
Original Study

Purpose: To study new and existing risk factors related to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) phenotypes in a Colorado cohort.

Methods: Age-related macular degeneration was categorized into early, intermediate, or advanced forms. Controls (n = 180) were patients with cataract and no AMD. Demographic and clinical data were gathered by patient interview and verified by chart review. Image data were reviewed by vitreoretinal specialists. Statistical analysis included univariable and multivariate logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05).

Results: Among the 456 patients with AMD, 157 (34.4%), 80 (17.6%), and 219 (48.0%) had the early/intermediate, geographic atrophy, and neovascular forms of the disease, respectively. Adjusted for age, African-American race was associated with a reduced risk of early/intermediate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.08, confidence interval [CI] = 0.01–0.67) and neovascular AMD (AOR = 0.15, CI = 0.03–0.72). A family history of AMD was a risk factor for early/intermediate (AOR = 4.08, CI = 2.30–7.25), geographic atrophy (AOR = 8.62, CI = 3.77–19.7), and neovascular AMD (AOR = 3.76, CI = 2.16–6.56). A history of asthma was related to the early/intermediate form of AMD (AOR = 2.34, CI = 1.22–4.46).

Conclusion: Studying AMD in specific populations may reveal novel risk factors such as our finding of a relationship between asthma history and AMD.

Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration in a Colorado cohort.

*Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado; and

Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado.

Reprint requests: Anne M. Lynch, MB, BCh, BAO, MSPH, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Mail Stop F731, 1675 Aurora Court, Aurora, CO 80045; e-mail:

Support from a Challenge Grant to the Department of Ophthalmology from Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc and the Frederic C. Hamilton Macular Degeneration Center.

None of the authors has any financial/conflicting interests to disclose.

© 2019 by Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc.