To describe recurrence patterns and investigate candidate risk factors for recurrences of central serous chorioretinopathy.
In 46 patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy and follow-up >12 months after first episode resolution, parameters influencing recurrences were retrospectively evaluated using a frailty Cox proportional hazard survival model. Covariates included baseline systemic findings: age, gender, corticosteroid use, stress, shift work, sleep disorder, depression, allergy, cardiovascular risk; baseline optical coherence tomography findings: subfoveal choroidal thickness, pigment epithelial detachment pattern (regular/bump/irregular), number of subretinal hyperreflective foci at leakage site; baseline angiographic findings: fluorescein leakage intensity (intense/moderate/subtle/absent), hyperpermeability pattern on indocyanine-green angiography (focal/multifocal); and episode-related findings: duration and treatment of previous episode.
Twenty of 46 subjects (43%) presented ≥1 recurrences during a mean follow-up of 29.9 ± 9.5 months (range, 15–54 months). Follow-up duration did not differ between cases with or without recurrences (P = 0.3). Worse final visual acuity levels (logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution) were associated with a higher number of episodes during follow-up (P = 0.032, r = 0.28). In a univariate analysis, higher subfoveal choroidal thickness (P = 0.021), nonintense fluorescein leakage (= moderate/subtle/absent, P = 0.033), multiple subretinal hyperreflective foci (P = 0.026), and shift work (P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with recurrences, with a near-significant influence of irregular pigment epithelial detachment (P = 0.093). In a multivariate analysis, higher subfoveal choroidal thickness (P = 0.007), nonintense fluorescein leakage (P = 0.003) and shift work (P < 0.0001) remained significant and independent risk factors for recurrences.
Multiple factors influence the risk of central serous chorioretinopathy recurrence. These findings may contribute to identify patients at higher risk, who could benefit from earlier or more intensive treatment.