Purpose:To clarify the pathophysiology of multifocal posterior pigment epitheliopathy (MPPE), or bullous retinal detachment (RD)—an unusual manifestation of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC)—we evaluated indocyanine green (ICG) angiographic findings of patients with MPPE.
Methods:Indocyanine green angiography was performed on 45 eyes of 26 patients with MPPE in our clinic during a 4-year period and compared with clinical and fluorescein angiographic (FA) findings.
Results:Ophthalmoscopically, in the posterior pole there were multiple yellowishwhite retinal exudations, associated with flat, serous RD and bullous RD in the lower periphery. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated multiple massive leakages from the choroid into the subretinal space. These leakage sites corresponded to the retinal exudations. Indocyanine green angiography showed hyperfluorescence in the posterior pole of the choroid. The hyperfluorescence was first seen in the middle phase and became prominent in the late phase. This finding seems to be due to extravasation from the choriocapillaris. After laser photocoagulation of the leakage sites seen on FA, the leakages stopped and the retinal exudations and RD were resolved. Indocyanine green angiography, however, revealed hyperfluorescence in the posterior pole that was seen in active stage.
Discussion and Conclusion:These ICG angiographic findings for MPPE show that hyperpermeability of the choroidal vessels may be the primary causative lesion. This is followed by an intrastromal accumulation of the extravasated choroidal fluid, which may be subclinical. Involvement of the retinal pigment epithelium may be secondary, and then the disease becomes manifest with RD. In MPPE, a severe form of CSC, the retinal pigment epithelium is involved extensively and widely, and prognosis is unfavorable. We conclude that MPPE and CSC represent opposite ends of a common morbid spectrum.
From the Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi Osaka. Japan.
The authors have no proprietary interest.
Supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education. Science and Culture of Japan.
© The Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc.