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Questions and answers

Raffán-Sanabria, Fernandoa,b

doi: 10.1097/CJ9.0000000000000080
Spanish Version

aAnesthesiologist, intensivist, Hospital Universitario Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia

bProfessor, Universidad del Bosque and Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.

How to cite this article: Raffán-Sanabria F. Questions and answers. Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology. 2018;00:00–00.

Read the Spanish version of this article at:

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

1) Most adverse events in the surgical units are the result of:1

  1. Lack of non-technical skills.
  2. Failure of monitoring equipment.
  3. Poor pre-operative evaluation.
  4. B and C are true.

2) In the Guidelines recommended by ERAS (Enhanced Recovery After Surgery), oral hydration with clear liquids is recommended, with a load of oral carbohydrates administered:2

  1. 4 hours before the induction of anesthesia.
  2. 3 hours before the induction of anesthesia.
  3. 2 hours before the induction of anesthesia.
  4. 1 hour before the induction of anesthesia.

3) For pre-operative management, the ERAS protocols recommend the following, except for:2

  1. Bowel preparation.
  2. Anti-thrombotic prophylaxis.
  3. Antibiotic prophylaxis.
  4. Nausea and vomiting prophylaxis.

4) The shock index is a marker of severity in multiple trauma patients and is based on the following ratio:3

  1. Systolic blood pressure/heart rate.
  2. Heart rate/systolic blood pressure.
  3. Heart rate /respiratory frequency.
  4. Heart rate/Mean blood pressure.

5) According to Cortés Samaca et al., which of the following parameters involves the highest relative risk of requiring a transfusion in a multiple trauma patient?3

  1. Base deficit < −6 at 6 hours.
  2. Lactate clearance <20% at 6 hours.
  3. Severe shock index at admission.
  4. Severe shock index at 6 hours.

6) Severe hyperchloremia refers to a chloride serum level:4

  1. > 110 mEq/L.
  2. > 115 mEq/L.
  3. > 120 mEq/L.
  4. >125 mEq/L.

7) For the management of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors induced angioedema, the suggestion is using:5

  1. Fresh plasma.
  2. H1 antagonists.
  3. Steroids.
  4. All of the above.

8) Which of the following so called muscular dystrophies is the most frequent one?6

  1. Steinert's myotonic dystrophy.
  2. Duchenne's disease.
  3. Ullrich dystrophy.
  4. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.

9) From the following muscular dystrophies, which one presents the highest CPK elevation?6

  1. Ullrich dystrophy.
  2. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.
  3. Merosin deficiency dystrophy.
  4. Steinert's myotonic dystrophy.

10) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is characterized by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons. Which of the following symptoms or signs is associated with this disorder?7

  1. Spasticity.
  2. Atrophy.
  3. Hyporeflexia.
  4. Fasciculation.


  1. A.
  2. C.
  3. A.
  4. B.
  5. C.
  6. A.
  7. A.
  8. B.
  9. C.
  10. C.
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1. Arcila MA. Anestesia segura: aprendiendo de la aviación. Rev Colomb Anestesiol 2018; 46:185–186.
2. Aristizábal JP, Estrada JJ, Arango AS, Sánchez-Zapata P. Análisis de resultados después de la implementación de protocolos de recuperación acelerada en cirugía hepatopancreatobiliar. Rev Colomb Anestesiol 2018; 46:196–202.
3. Cortés-Samacá CA, Meléndez-Flórez HJ, Robles SA, Meléndez-Gómez EA, Puche-Cogollo CA, Mayorga-Anaya HJ. Déficit de base, depuración de lactato e índice de choque como predictores de morbimortalidad en pacientes politraumatizados. Rev Colomb Anestesiol 2018; 46:209–217.
4. Medina-Lombo RA, Sánchez –García VL, Gomez-Gómez LF, Vidal-Bonilla SA, Castro –Castro JJ, Sánchez-Vanegas G. Hipercloremia y mortalidad en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Rev Colomb Anestesiol 2018; 46:218–223.
5. Truyols C, Díaz C, Brito L, García-Ramiro M. Vía aérea difícil no prevista secundaria a consumo de inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina. Reporte de caso. Rev Colomb Anestesiol 2018; 46:264–267.
6. Echeverry-Marín PC, Bustamante-Vega AM. Implicaciones anestésicas de las distrofias musculares. Rev Colomb Anestesiol 2018; 46:230–241.
7. Ruiz-Chirosa MC, Nieto-Martín L, García –Fernández E, Vaquero-Roncero LM, Sánchez-Montero JM, Alonso-Guardo L, et al. Anestesia epidural para realizar gastrostomía abierta en paciente con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica. Rev Colomb Anestesiol 2018; 46:248–251.

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