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Distinguishing Between Efficacy and Real-World Effectiveness: The Case for Thinking Beyond Classic Randomized Controlled Trial Design

Sites, Brian D. MD, MS; Masaracchia, Melissa M. MD; Davis, Matthew MPH, PhD

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine: March/April 2017 - Volume 42 - Issue 2 - p 131–132
doi: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000563

From the Departments of *Anesthesiology and †Orthopedic Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center; ‡The Dartmouth Institute, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH; and §Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, School of Nursing, and Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Accepted for publication November 30, 2016.

Address correspondence to: Brian D. Sites, MD, MS, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Dr, Lebanon, NH 03756 (e-mail:

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

The Department of Anesthesiology at Dartmouth Medical School provided protected research time for B.D.S. and M.M.M. to support this project.

Copyright © 2017 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.