Several studies have shown that psychiatric disorders can be associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk, that is, pulmonary embolism (PE) and/or deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In this study, we provide a systematic review and meta-analyses of the studies addressing this issue.
All studies addressing the risk of VTE phenomena (whole VTE, PE, DVT, fatal VTE) in individuals with psychotic, mood, and anxiety disorders published between 1998 and 2019 were reviewed and included in the meta-analyses. Main characteristics of the studies and data concerning VTE risk were extracted. The methodological qualities of the studies were also analyzed. A random-effects meta-analysis model was used. A meta-analysis was conducted separately for each disorder, as well as separately for unadjusted and adjusted studies. Meta-analyses were repeated considering only good-quality studies. Heterogeneity was assessed.
Sixteen studies were reviewed and 15 included in the meta-analyses. Psychotic and bipolar disorders were significantly associated with VTE risk (VTE, DVT, PE, and fatal VTE for psychotic disorder: odds ratios [ORs] between 1.29 and 2.20; VTE, DVT, and PE for bipolar disorder: ORs between 1.22 and 2.14). Depression and anxiety disorders were associated with VTE risk only in adjusted analyses (DVT and PE for depression: ORs = 1.29; VTE and PE for anxiety disorders: ORs between 1.14 and 1.49).
The risk of VTE among individuals with psychiatric disorders may be explained by hypercoagulability and stasis, with both being related to, and independent of, treatment adverse effects. VTE risk should be taken into consideration in the treatment for people with psychiatric disorders.