Within a couple, partners influence each other’s mental and physical health. This review focuses on how couples’ relationships, the partners’ individual and joint vulnerabilities, and their health behaviors influence health through changes in the gut microbiota, metabolism, and immune function. Couples’ shared stressors and emotions and their intertwined lifestyles and routines serve to promote common disease risks in part through parallel changes in their gut microbiotas. Marital discord, stress, and depression have strong bidirectional links, fueling one another. Chronic marital stress and depression can elevate the risk for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease by altering resting energy expenditure, insulin production, and triglyceride responses after unhealthy meals. During stressful times, health behaviors typically suffer—and sleep disturbances, poor diets, and sedentary behavior all influence these metabolic pathways while also promoting gut dysbiosis. Dysbiosis increases intestinal permeability (gut leakiness), providing a mechanistic pathway from marital distress and depression to heightened inflammation and accelerated aging. Age-related changes in the gut microbiota’s composition and gut leakiness foster immunosenescence, as well as the progression of inflamm-aging; these age-related risks may be altered by stress and depression, diet, sleep, exercise habits, and developmental shifts in emotion regulation strategies. Consideration of the strong mutual influences that partners have on each other’s mood and health behaviors, as well as the biological pathways that underlie these influences, provides a new way to view marriage’s health implications.