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Life Satisfaction and Bone Mineral Density Among Postmenopausal Women: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations

Rauma, Päivi H. MPharm; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli PhD; Williams, Lana J. PhD; Tuppurainen, Marjo T. PhD; Kröger, Heikki P. PhD; Honkanen, Risto J. PhD

doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000114
Original Articles

Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether and how global life satisfaction is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss.

Methods A total of 2167 women from a cohort of Finnish women born in 1932 to 1941 were included in the cross-sectional and 1147 women in the 10-year longitudinal part of the present study. Participants responded to a postal enquiry and underwent femoral BMD densitometry in 1999 (baseline) and 2009 (follow-up). During the follow-up, their life satisfaction was repeatedly measured using a four-item scale. Self-reported data on health, life-style, and medication were used to adjust the multivariate linear regression models.

Results Mean (standard deviation) femoral BMD decreased over the 10-year follow-up from 880 (125) to 846 (122) mg/cm2. In the multivariate model, life satisfaction (p = .028) and its improvement (p = .001) predicted reduced bone loss, whereas hospitalization due to depression predicted increased bone loss (B = −0.523 annual % change, standard error = 0.212, p = .014). These effects were independent of each other.

Conclusions Easily assessed global life satisfaction should be taken into account when effects of aging and prevention of osteoporosis as well as health promotion in postmenopausal women are considered.

From the Social Pharmacy (P.H.R.), School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland (UEF), Kuopio, Finland; Bone and Cartilage Research Unit (P.H.R., M.T.T., H.P.K., R.J.H.), Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, UEF, Kuopio, Finland; Institute of Clinical Medicine (H.K.-H.), Psychiatry, UEF, Kuopio, Finland; Clinic of Child Psychiatry (H.K.-H.), Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; Department of Psychiatry (H.K.-H.), Kuopio University Hospital (KUH), Kuopio, Finland; South-Savonia Hospital District (H.K.-H.), Mikkeli, Finland; North Karelia Central Hospital (H.K.-H.), Joensuu, Finland; SOSTERI (H.K.-H), Savonlinna, Finland; SOTE (H.K.-H), Iisalmi, Finland; Lapland Hospital District (H.K.-H.), Rovaniemi, Finland; University of Oulu (H.K.-H.), Oulu, Finland; School of Medicine (L.J.W.), Deakin University, Geelong, Australia; Department of Psychiatry (L.J.W.), The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia; Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (M.T.T.) and Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Handsurgery (H.P.K.), KUH, Kuopio, Finland; and Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition (R.J.H.), UEF, Kuopio, Finland.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Päivi H. Rauma, MPharm, Bone and Cartilage Research Unit, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland. E-mail:

Received for publication December 20, 2013; revision received July 19, 2014.

Copyright © 2014 by American Psychosomatic Society
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