To investigate the association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms in a national community sample of older people. Vitamin D deficiency is common in older people with potential effects on mood.
Data were analyzed from 2070 participants aged ≥65 years who had participated in the 2005 Health Survey for England. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale) had been measured. Covariates included age, sex, social class, season of examination, and physical health status.
Depressive symptoms were associated with clinical vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D levels <10 ng/mL; present in 9.8%) independent of other covariates but not with broader deficiency states. This association was not modified by season of examination.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with late-life depression in northern latitudes.
25(OH)D = 25-hydroxy vitamin D; HSE = Health Survey for England; GDS10 = 10-item Geriatric Depression Scale; BMI = body mass index; OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval.