Review ArticlesTargeting the Endocannabinoid System in Psychiatric IllnessKatzman, Martin A. BSc, MD, FRCPC*†‡§; Furtado, Melissa BSc*; Anand, Leena BA*Author Information From the *START Clinic for Mood and Anxiety Disorders; †The Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Thunder Bay; ‡Department of Psychology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay; and §Adler School of Professional Studies, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Received March 4, 2016; accepted after revision August 16, 2016. Reprints: Martin A. Katzman BSc, MD, FRCPC, START Clinic for Mood and Anxiety Disorders, 32 Park Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4W 2N4 (e-mail: [email protected]). Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology: December 2016 - Volume 36 - Issue 6 - p 691-703 doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000000581 Buy Metrics Abstract Prevalence of psychiatric disorders continues to rise globally, yet remission rates and patient outcome remain less than ideal. As a result, novel treatment approaches for these disorders are necessary to decrease societal economic burden, as well as increase individual functioning. The recent discovery of the endocannabinoid system has provided an outlet for further research into its role in psychiatric disorders, because efficacy of targeted treatments have been demonstrated in medical illnesses, including cancers, neuropathic pain, and multiple sclerosis. The present review will investigate the role of the endocannabinoid system in psychiatric disorders, specifically schizophrenia, depressive, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders, as well as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Controversy remains in prescribing medicinal cannabinoid treatments due to the fear of adverse effects. However, one must consider all potential limitations when determining the safety and tolerability of cannabinoid products, specifically cannabinoid content (ie, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol vs cannabidiol) as well as study design. The potential efficacy of cannabinoid treatments in the psychiatric population is an emerging topic of interest that provides potential value going forward in medicine. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.