Atomoxetine is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Atomoxetine metabolism is mediated by CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine and its metabolites, 4-hydroxyatomoxetine and N-desmethylatomoxetine. A single 40-mg oral dose of atomoxetine was administered to 40 subjects with different CYP2C19 genotypes (all participants carried the CYP2D6*1/*10 genotype). Concentrations of atomoxetine and its metabolites were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in plasma samples that were collected up to 24 hours after drug intake. For atomoxetine, the CYP2C19 poor metabolizer (PM) group showed significantly increased maximum plasma concentration and AUC0−∞ (area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity) and decreased apparent oral clearance compared with samples of the CYP2C19 extensive metabolizer (EM) and intermediate metabolizer (IM) groups (P < 0.001 for all). The half-life of atomoxetine in the CYP2C19PM group was also significantly longer than in the other genotype groups (P < 0.01 for CYP2C19EM and P < 0.05 for CYP2C19IM groups). The maximum plasma concentration and AUC0−∞ of 4-hydroxyatomoxetine were significantly higher in the CYP2C19PM group compared with those in the CYP2C19EM and IM groups (P < 0.001 for CYP2C19EM and P < 0.05 for CYP2C19IM, respectively), whereas the corresponding values for N-desmethylatomoxetine in the CYP2C19PM group were significantly lower than those in the 2 genotype groups (P < 0.001 for both genotype groups). These results suggest that the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine.
From the *School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon; †College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, Daegu; and ‡College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea.
Received September 15, 2012; accepted after revision April 3, 2013.
Reprints: Seok-Yong Lee, PhD, School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 440-746, Republic of Korea (e-mail: email@example.com).
C.-I.C. and J.-W.B. contributed equally to this study.
This study was supported by a grant (13182KFDA708) from the Korea Food & Drug Administration and a Postdoctoral Research Program of Sungkyunkwan University (2012).