Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Share this article on:

Association study of the β-arrestin 2 gene (ARRB2) with opioid and cocaine dependence in a European–American population

Ambrose-Lanci, Lisa M.a; Vaswani, Meeraa,b; Clarke, Toni-Kima; Zeng, Angelaa; Lohoff, Falk W.a; Ferraro, Thomas N.a; Berrettini, Wade H.a

doi: 10.1097/YPG.0b013e3283539528
Brief Reports

The rewarding properties of drugs of abuse are mediated by the mu-opioid receptor (MOR). Genetic variations in MOR and MOR interacting proteins (MORIPs) involved in MOR signaling may increase the risk for drug dependence. The MORIP β-arrestin plays an important role in the regulation of MOR trafficking, thereby highlighting it as a candidate gene for addiction phenotypes. In this case–control association study, DNA samples from cocaine-dependent (n=336) and opioid-dependent (n=335) patients and controls (n=656) were genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs11868227, rs3786047, rs4522461, rs1045280, rs2271167, rs2036657, and rs4790694) across ARRB2, the gene encoding the β-arrestin 2 protein. No significant differences were observed in genotype or allele frequency between drug-dependent and control individuals for any of the single nucleotide polymorphisms analyzed. Haplotype analysis was similarly negative. Further studies are needed to determine whether variations in ARRB2 (or other MORIPs) are relevant to cocaine or opioid dependence in different ethnic populations or whether they confer a risk that is specific to dependence on other drugs of abuse.

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

aTranslational Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

bAll India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (

Lisa M. Ambrose-Lanci and Meera Vaswani contributed equally to the writing of this article.

Correspondence to Lisa Ambrose-Lanci, PhD, Translational Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, 125 S. 31st St, School of Medicine, Rm. 2109, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Tel: +1 215 898 4203; fax: +1 215 573 2041; e-mail:

Received February 2, 2011

Accepted November 2, 2011

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.