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Association of androgen receptor gene, CAG and GGN repeat length polymorphism and impulsive-disinhibited personality traits in inmates: the role of short–long haplotype

Aluja, Anton; García, Luis F.; Blanch, Angel; Fibla, Joan

doi: 10.1097/YPG.0b013e328345465e
Original Articles

Objective This study analyses the association between impulsive-disinhibited personality traits and the androgen receptor CAG and GGN repeat polymorphisms in both inmates and control samples.

Methods We used two samples: 153 inmates (mean age= 33.31 years; standard deviation: 8.6; range: 20–63) and 108 controls (mean age= 26.71 years; standard deviation: 9.68; range: 17–53). A disinhibited personality construct was measured using the following personality scales: Sensation Seeking, Aggression-Hostility, Psychoticism, Sensitivity to Reward, Novelty Seeking and Impulsivity. A factor analysis of the six scales provided a normalized z index that was taken as a measure of impulsive-disinhibited personality.

Results Our data show that inmates carrying CAG short and GGN long haplotype group (short–long haplotype) obtained higher scores on all personality scales. Differences were found for the Impulsive Sensation-Seeking scale (age-adjusted multivariate analysis, P<0.016) and z index (P<0.036). When comparing extreme groups in the impulsive-disinhibited personality index (taking the 75th percentile as a cut-off), carriers of the short–long haplotype were more prevalent in the extreme high group (30 vs. 10%: unadjusted odds ratio=3.8; 95% confidence interval=1.5–9.8; age-adjusted odds ratio=4.4; 95% confidence interval=1.6–12; P<0.004).

Conclusion Our findings suggest that the androgen receptor CAG and GGN polymorphisms might influence impulsive-disinhibited personality traits.

University of Lleida, Lleida, Province, Spain

Correspondence to Anton Aluja, PhD, University of Lleida, Avda. Estudi Gn., 4, Lleida, Province 25001, Spain Tel: +34 973 70 65 29; fax: +34 973 70 65 02; e-mail:

Received August 6, 2010

Accepted December 8, 2010

© 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.