BRIEF REPORTSA functional prodynorphin promoter polymorphism and opioid dependenceRay, Rijua; Doyle, Glenn A.b; Crowley, James J.a; Buono, Russell J.b; Oslin, David W.b c; Patkar, Ashwin A.d; Mannelli, Paolod; DeMaria, Peter A. Jrd; O'Brien, Charles P.b c; Berrettini, Wade H.bAuthor Information aDepartment of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia bDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia cPhiladelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia dDepartment of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Correspondence to Riju Ray, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 415 Curie Boulevard, Clinical Research Building, Room 130, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Tel: +1 215 898 0092; fax: +1 215 573 2041; e-mail: email@example.com Requests for reprints to Dr Wade Berrettini, Karl E. Rickels, Professor of Psychiatry, Director, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Room 111, 415 Curie Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Tel: +1 215 898 0092; fax: +1 215 573 2041; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Sponsorships: This work was supported by a Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center grant at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center (C.P.O'B. D.W.O., W.H.B. O'Brien, Oslin and Berrettini) and NIDA Grant P60-05186 (C.P.O'B., D.W.O., W.H.B.). Accepted 12 April 2005 Psychiatric Genetics: December 2005 - Volume 15 - Issue 4 - p 295-298 Buy Abstract Objectives The prodynorphin gene (PDYN) promoter has a repeat polymorphism that is functionally important in association with substance abuse. We examined this polymorphism for association in our sample of 168 opioid-dependent patients and 122 ethnically and geographically matched controls. Methods Patients were selected from university-affiliated residential and non-residential addiction treatment programs in the Philadelphia area. A sample of blood was drawn from consenting individuals and genomic DNA was isolated. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the PDYN promoter was performed and various genotypes were determined on the basis of differing sizes of the polymerase chain reaction products. The genotype and allele data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test. Result A significant difference in genotype (P<0.0006) and allele (P<10−5) frequencies was found between the African American and European American populations. We did not detect any significant difference in genotype or allele frequencies between the patients and controls within the European American ethnic group. However, we detected a weak association (P=0.013) when we compared allele frequencies of patients and controls in the African American population. Conclusions These data suggest that the PDYN repeat polymorphism should be studied in additional opioid-dependent populations. © 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.