The treatment of glabellar lines with botulinum toxin type-A (BoNT-A) is a staple for aesthetic providers who specialize in facial rejuvenation. Clinical efforts are currently underway to substantiate upper facial injections (the corrugator muscles are the target muscles) of BoNT-A as an antidepression therapy. This article describes the origin of “facial feedback” by Charles Darwin nearly 150 years ago, as well as “emotional proprioception”—2 neuroanatomical concepts that help provide the scientific rationale behind the general influence facial muscles have on the emotional centers of the brain, and, specifically, how the corrugator muscles—involved with frowning—promote a gloomy mood. The journey researchers have taken to clinically qualify BoNT-A injections of the corrugator muscles—to inhibit frowning, and thereby mitigate depression—will also be highlighted so that aesthetic providers are up to date on this emerging benefit of BoNT-A.
Connie Brennan, RN, CPSN, CANS, CPC, is currently the National Director of Medical Aesthetic Education for Life Time LifeSpa/Medi and President/Founder of Aesthetic Enhancement Solutions, LLC. She is a licensed registered nurse in 10 states and has earned advanced certifications in aesthetic injectables, laser resurfacing, skin care, sclerotherapy, and perioperative nursing over the course of 28 years in aesthetic medicine. She has worked as an expert alongside the ASPSN task force in creating the first Certified Aesthetic Nurse Specialist (CANS) exam.
Address correspondence to Connie Brennan, RN, CPSN, CANS, CPC, Aesthetic Enhancement Solutions, LLC, 5905 Troy Lane, N, Plymouth, MN 55446 (e-mail: info@conniebrennanRN.com).
The author is a consultant to Allergan, Inc., and Galderma, L.P., but has not received any funding to write or publish this article. The author reports no conflicts of interest.