Advanced rejuvenation procedures for the upper face are becoming increasingly popular for aesthetic providers but are considered a high-risk treatment area for dermal filler/contouring products. Risks may range from bruising, which is manageable, to blindness, most often irreversible. Detailed comprehension of the facial anatomy is imperative when performing aesthetic injections including neuromodulators and dermal filler/contouring products. Understanding the location and function of the muscles, as well as landmarking the blood vessels and nerves, will assist the aesthetic provider to perform safe, confident injection procedures. This article focuses on the upper face anatomy as identified by the author's cadaveric dissections and includes the treatment areas of the frontalis, temporalis, and glabellar complex. The author's next article for the Plastic Surgical Nursing journal will focus on the periorbital area.
Tracey A. Hotta, BScN, RN, CPSN, is the owner of TH Medical Aesthetics and President of THMA Consult Inc.
Address correspondence to Tracey A. Hotta, BScN, RN, CPSN, 75 Cricklewood Crescent, Thornhill, ON L3T 4T8, Canada (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
The author has not received any funding in writing this article. The author declares no conflicts of interest.