To control for confounders, a multivariable binary regression analysis was performed (Table 7). BMI was identified as an independent risk factor for all-cause (OR 1.046, P < 0.001) and wound (OR 1.075, P < 0.001) complications. Smoking status was also associated with an increased risk of wound complications (OR 1.918, P = 0.004). Being in the transmasculine cohort did not increase patient risk for all-cause (OR 0.875, P = 0.525) or wound (OR 0.562, P = 0.090) complications in the multivariate analysis.
Gender dysphoria is associated with significant psychosocial, health-related, and fiscal burdens.19 The degree of psychological comorbidity in this population is difficult to understate, with rates of depression reported at 2–3.6 times that of the general population and rates of suicide attempts up to 25 times as high.19,25 Furthermore, compared with national averages, transgender individuals have double the rates of unemployment and homelessness, triple the rates of illicit drug use, and four times the rate of HIV infection.19,26 Moreover, there is a considerable financial burden unique to the healthcare needs of this population, as evidenced by costly hormonal and surgical therapies, and the medical and behavioral health appointments needed to access them.27
Clinically significant reductions in psychopathology and substance abuse following GAS have been documented in the literature,28,29 including studies specific to masculinizing mastectomy.6,8 As such, continued investigation into the safety, efficacy, and epidemiology of this procedure is essential to facilitate the development of optimal and ethical management strategies. However, there are numerous challenges associated with research into this population and procedure. To begin, the first case series of masculinizing mastectomy was not published until 1995;30 despite the recent increase in similar studies, the vast majority are single institution in nature.5,11,12,14,30,31 Furthermore, these projects are largely related to technique and aesthetic outcome, with fewer reporting on epidemiology and complication rates. In contrast, there is an abundance of literature pertaining to mastectomy for indications other than masculinizing chest reconstruction, including cancer prophylaxis20 and correction of gynecomastia.21 To address this aim, we have used the ACS NSQIP database to provide an assessment of nationally reported epidemiologic characteristics and postoperative complication rates of mastectomies performed for FtM chest contouring when compared with mastectomies performed for CRRM and surgical correction of gynecomastia.
Recent improvements in social acceptance, legislative regulations,32 and depth of the transgender workforce providing affirmative care have resulted in a number of important epidemiologic changes, which were also present in our analysis. Increased number of masculinizing mastectomies were noted for each year in our dataset. Similarly, annual procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons noted a 328% increase in transmasculine procedures between 2015 and 2017.33,34 Furthermore, Lane et al. analyzed trends in GAS between 2009 and 2015 and identified mastectomy as the most common operation performed for gender affirmation.35
Between 2010 and 2017, the average age of transmasculine patients in our study consistently decreased, which likely reflects both expanded access to care and an increased awareness of gender dysphoria in younger populations. A recent study published in JAMA Pediatrics found significant improvements in body satisfaction following transmasculine chest reconstruction in patients aged 13–25 years, further highlighting the ongoing changes in transgender patient management.6
Surgical approaches to chest masculinization by means of mastectomy can be dichotomized into those historically used for cosmetic, ablative, and reconstructive breast surgery,10,36 and those more commonly employed in the correction of gynecomastia,13,15,37 albeit with technical modifications reflecting the inherently different goals. A 2018 review of transgender chest surgery described the anatomical considerations of mastectomy in the transgender male patient as “virtually identical” to that of the prophylactic mastectomy in cisgender females, while also noting the significant overlap with techniques used for gynecomastia treatment.38 Colić and Colić published a retrospective series detailing their experience with a circumareolar mastectomy technique used in both masculinizing chest reconstruction and gynecomastia treatment.37
Although exogenous testosterone is not expected to contribute to surgical risk,39 juxtaposition of the transmasculine subjects with 2 different control cohorts that approximate either the natal sex characteristics or the new hormonal environment allows for an interesting comparison of postoperative outcomes. Overall, the results of this study illustrate that transmasculine mastectomy is a safe procedure, with an all-cause complication rate of 4.7%, and a similar risk profile to mastectomy in cisgender men and women after adjusting for differences in demographic characteristics and comorbid risk factors. This is consistent with the findings from prior studies, including a systematic review of masculinizing chest reconstruction by Wilson et al., which noted rates of acute complications ranging from 2.1% to 9.2%.10,40
Unplanned return to the operating room was the most common complication in our transmasculine cohort. Overall, reoperation was noted in 3.2% of masculinizing mastectomy cases, most commonly due to hematoma formation (1.5% of all cases). In comparison, only 0.4% of CRRM and 0.9% of GM patients experienced a hematoma within the 30-day postoperative period. Of note, a 2018 Continuing Medical Education article on various techniques in masculinizing chest reconstruction reported rates of hematoma formation in masculinizing chest reconstruction that ranged between 4.5% and 33%.41 It is possible that, given larger numbers, this difference in rates would be statistically, if not necessarily clinically, significant. If so, it may be due to the differences in technique used for transmasculine chest reconstruction. Numerous authors have suggested that the risk of hematoma is increased with techniques that offer poor exposure, such as the limited incision semicircular or transareolar approaches.10,13,17
Postoperative outcomes were also favorable in the gynecomastia cohort, with an overall complication rate of 3.7%. These rates were lower than expected based on several retrospective studies which reported postoperative complication rates between 1.9% and 33%.42–47 In contrast, postoperative complication rates were considerably higher in the prophylactic mastectomy cohort, with 10.4% of subjects experiencing at least 1 all-cause complication. These results are consistent with a recent Cochrane systematic review of risk-reducing mastectomy, which reported postoperative complication rates of 4%–22% among those that did not undergo postmastectomy reconstruction.20 Given that CRRM is directly related to the amount of tissue removed during mastectomy,48 the express goal of mastectomy in this population is the removal of as much breast tissue as possible. Aggressive dissection and removal of breast tissue may jeopardize the mastectomy skin flaps and could explain the higher complication rate in this cohort.
As expected, BMI and smoking were identified as independent predictors of postoperative complications in our study. The association between BMI and postoperative complications has been extensively documented, including studies on mastectomy for transgender chest reconstruction,30,41 cancer prophylaxis,49 and gynecomastia.44 Smoking has also been shown to adversely impact outcomes following risk-reduction mastectomy.20
Importantly, after controlling for confounding variables, transmasculine mastectomy did not have an increased risk of complications compared with the other 2 cohorts. Thus, despite a potentially challenging learning curve, this study shows that surgeons are able to perform masculinizing chest surgery safely, and that the transgender patient is not at an increased risk of complications when compared with cisgender patients undergoing the same procedure. That said, although the nature of the ACS NSQIP dataset effectively precludes an assessment of revisions due to poor cosmesis, it is an important consideration when evaluating postoperative outcomes in this population. Data from retrospective studies show that secondary aesthetic revisions occur in 9%–40.4% of cases.12
Despite the advantages of a robust, multi-institute dataset, there are important limitations associated with the ACS NSQIP database. To begin, evaluation of a given procedure depends on the precision with which the CPT code is defined. In this study, inherent limitations in the rigorousness of CPT coding prohibits the granularity necessary to more thoroughly assess surgical technique. Furthermore, all studies utilizing the ACS NSQIP database are bound by the variables contained within the dataset. Therefore, evaluation of aesthetic and patient-reported outcomes is not possible in this setting. Additionally, postoperative outcomes are only collected for a period of 30 days and thus fail to capture potential long-term complications. Other limitations include the inability to assess perioperative medication use, such as hormone replacement therapy, which is particularly relevant in this study. Furthermore, data entry is susceptible to human error, and reporting practices likely differ between and even within institutions. Finally, it should be noted that the number and composition of hospitals enrolled in the ACS NSQIP often changes from year-to-year, and in the absence of statistical weighting of the dataset, trend analyses should not be extrapolated onto a population level.
Nonetheless, this study benchmarks the epidemiologic characteristics of patients undergoing transmasculine mastectomy nationwide and provides context for assessing the complication profile of this procedure in comparison with other, more common indications for mastectomy. Further research is needed to correlate this data with aesthetic and patient-reported outcomes data. Other important future directions for this study include a thorough assessment of the socioeconomic, geographic, and financial aspects of mastectomy in the transgender population.
Mastectomy is an integral component in the management of gender dysphoria in transgender males. This study suggests that mastectomy is a safe procedure overall, as evidenced by low rates of postoperative complications and readmissions. When compared with cisgender male and female counterparts undergoing mastectomy for other indications, transgender males were not at an increased risk of adverse outcomes. These favorable results should encourage surgeons to expand their offerings to transgender patients and reassure them as to the safety of chest masculinization as a component of gender affirmation.
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Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of The American Society of Plastic Surgeons.
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