Cleft lip surgery is technically difficult requiring precise planning and understanding of 3-dimensional structures to obtain an optimal outcome. A physical cleft lip simulator was developed that allows trainees to gain experience in cleft lip repair and primary rhinoplasty before operating on real patients.
A cleft lip simulator that comprises multilayered soft tissues, bone, and realistic dissection planes was developed using 3D printing, adhesive and polymer techniques. Four experienced cleft surgeons performed a total of 7 simulated repairs on the simulator. Feedback on the realism and value of the simulator was obtained from the surgeons.
Six of the repairs were a Fisher anatomic subunit approximation technique, and 1 was a rotation advancement repair. All repairs were completed with successful performance of markings, incisions, dissections, and multilayered closure. All surgeons agreed that the simulator is realistic and that the simulator is a valuable tool for training in cleft lip surgery.
A cleft lip simulator that allows performance of a cleft lip repair and primary rhinoplasty from start to finish was developed and pilot tested. The simulator provides a training platform to gain experience in cleft lip repair before operating on real patients.
From the *Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
†Center for Image Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention (CIGITI), Toronto, Ontario, Canada
‡Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
§Division of Neurosurgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Published online 5 September 2018.
Received for publication April 14, 2018; accepted June 1, 2018.
Presented at the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association Annual Meeting, March 15, 2017, Colorado Springs, Colo.
Disclosure: The cleft lip simulator is available commercially and sold by Simulare Medical Corp. (Toronto, Ontario, Canada). Drs. Podolsky, Fisher, Wong, Drake, and Forrest are each shareholders of Simulare Medical Corp. The Article Processing Charge was paid for by Simulare Medical.
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Dale J. Podolsky, MD, PhD, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, 5430–555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, E-mail: email@example.com
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