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Abstract 18: Orthognathic Consequences of Sphincter Pharyngoplasty in Cleft Patients A 2-Institutional Study

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery – Global Open: April 2016 - Volume 4 - Issue 4S - p 10
doi: 10.1097/01.GOX.0000488888.20425.2f
PRS AAPS Oral Proofs 2016

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

Thomas Willson, MD, Rizal Lim, MD, Rachel Mandelbaum, BA, Deborah Martins, BA, James Bradley, MD, Libby Wilson, MD, Justine C. Lee, MD, PhD

From the University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Calif.

PURPOSE: Understanding long-term sequelae of cleft treatment is paramount in the refinement of treatment algorithms to accomplish optimized immediate and long-term outcomes. In this study, we reviewed sphincter pharyngoplasties as a method of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) treatment in relationship to orthognathic surgery.

METHODS: Cleft lip/palate and cleft palate patients, 15 years of age and older, were reviewed for demographics, VPI surgery, revisions, and subsequent orthognathic surgery at 2 institutions. Chi-square, Student’s t test, and logistic regression analyses were performed.

RESULTS: In 214 patients reviewed (mean age, 19.5 years), 61.7% were male, 18.2% had isolated cleft palate, 61.5% had unilateral cleft lip and palate, and 20.7% had bilateral cleft lip and palate. A total of 33.6% were diagnosed with VPI and received a sphincter pharyngoplasty (mean age, 11.9 years). When subsequent orthognathic surgery was examined, sphincter pharyngoplasty was not associated with maxillary advancement (P = 0.59), but did correlate with an increase in mandibular surgery from 2.8% to 11.1% (P = 0.02). The indications for mandibular surgery in the pharyngoplasty population were related to congenital micrognathia. When cephalometric analyses were evaluated, sphincter pharyngoplasty resulted in a decreased SNB angle (mean, 79.0–76.3 degrees, P = 0.02) and a higher incidence of normal to class II maxillomandibular relationships as defined by ANB angles >0.5 (P = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: Sphincter pharyngoplasty decreases anterior mandibular growth and the discrepancy between maxillomandibular skeletal relationships because of the frequent predisposition of cleft patients to maxillary hypoplasia. In patients with congenital mandibular micrognathia, a small increase in mandibular surgeries may occur.

© 2016 American Society of Plastic Surgeons