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Tardive Dyskinesia

A Historical Perspective


Journal of Psychiatric Practice®: March 2017 - Volume 23 - Issue 2 - p 121–129
doi: 10.1097/PRA.0000000000000224
COLUMNS: Psychopharmacology

The goal of this column is to provide historical context on tardive dyskinesia (TD) to help the reader understand how the concept was studied and evolved over time. Psychiatrists today should understand this history and consider it in combination with more recent data on the neurobiology of TD, including data from animal studies. This combination of classic data with modern science can help readers develop a more complete understanding and lead to a more judicious use of the term TD, after consideration of all of the alternative causes of abnormal movements, including spontaneous dyskinesia (SD). We advocate that clinicians use the term SD when in doubt about the cause of a movement disorder in a given patient, as TD is never distinguishable from SD in a given patient but is instead an issue of a statistical odds ratio.

MACALUSO and PRESKORN: Kansas University School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, KS

FLYNN: Robert J Dole VA Medical Center, Wichita, KS

S.H.P.: has worked with over 130 pharmaceutical companies in the United States and throughout the world. Over the past year, he has received grants/research support from or has served as a consultant, on the advisory board, or on the speaker’s bureau for Acadia, Alkermes, Assurex Health (developer and marketer of the GeneSight test), BioXcel, Food and Drug Administration, Eisai, Forum, Janssen, National Institute of Mental Health, Merck, Naurex/Aptinyx, Novartis, Rugen Holdings, The Stanley Medical Research Institute, Sunovion, and Vanda. M.M.: has conducted clinical trials research as principal investigator for the following pharmaceutical companies over the last 12 months: Alkermes, Allergan, AssureRx, Eisai, Forum, Lundbeck, Janssen, and Naurex/Aptinyx. All clinical trial and study contracts were with and payments made to the Kansas University Medical Center Research Institute, a research institute affiliated with Kansas University School of Medicine-Wichita (KUSM-W). The remaining author declares no conflicts of interest.

Please send correspondence to: Matthew Macaluso, DO, University of Kansas Medical Center, 1010 N. Kansas, Wichita, KS 67217 (email:

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