Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Point-of-Care Testing for Urine Analysis and Microalbuminuria for Diabetic Patient Management

Ungaro, Shaun BSc Pharmaceutical Sciences (Hons), MPharm; Wirth, Francesca BPharm (Hons), MPhil; Azzopardi, Lilian M. BPharm (Hons), MPhil, PhD, MRPharmS; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony BPharm, PharmD (Cinc), MACCP, MRPharmS

Point of Care: The Journal of Near-Patient Testing & Technology: September 2015 - Volume 14 - Issue 3 - p 71–72
doi: 10.1097/POC.0000000000000055
Original Articles

The objective was to implement point-of-care testing in the community pharmacy setting for the urine analysis of microalbuminuria and study the accuracy, practicality, and feasibility of the service. Three community pharmacies in Malta were used to randomly recruit 25 type 1 or 2 diabetic adult patients who provided a urine sample, which was analyzed using the Clinitek Status analyzer to yield results for the presence of microalbuminuria and glucose levels. Patients underwent a finger prick test, and patients who tested positive for microalbuminuria in the urine test underwent HbA1c testing using the DCA 2000+ analyzer. Of the 25 patients tested (13 male, 12 female; mean age, 62.2 years), 6 had microalbuminuria. Four patients had HbA1c levels in the abnormal range. Body mass index (P = 0.014) and hypertension (P = 0.026) positively correlated to the presence of microalbuminuria. Twenty-two patients would use the service with the average fee cited being between €4 and €6 for the strip test. The cost to conduct the test solely on a per strip basis is €1.60, which complies with the range patients are willing to pay for the test. The cost to purchase the Clinitek Status analyzer is difficult to regain, and this could only be done by conducting frequent tests. The fee that patients are willing to pay for the strip test can compensate for the cost of consumables and testing time.

From the Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, Malta.

Reprints: Shaun Ungaro, BSc Pharmaceutical Sciences (Hons), MPharm, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080, Malta. E-mail:

Supported by a research grant from the University of Malta Research fund grant on point-of care testing.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved