Electrochemical Sensors: A Review of Techniques and Applications in Point of Care TestingD’Orazio, Paul PHDPoint of Care: The Journal of Near-Patient Testing & Technology: June 2004 - Volume 3 - Issue 2 - p 49-59 doi: 10.1097/01.poc.0000127155.26679.dd Original Article Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Electrochemical sensors are used in systems for critical care testing, both in the laboratory and at the point of care. Measured analytes include pH, blood gases (PCO2, PO2), electrolytes, and metabolites. This review covers the fundamentals of the electrochemical measurement technologies used in direct sensors for pH, blood gases, and electrolytes, and as transducers for electrochemical biosensors for glucose, lactate, urea, creatinine, and newly emerging DNA sensors. Implementation of electrochemical sensors in commercially available systems for point of care testing will be covered, including sensor fabrication techniques, advantages and disadvantages of the various sensor technologies, and obstacles that have been overcome in practical application of these devices. From the Instrumentation Laboratory, Lexington, MA. Reprints: Paul D’Orazio, PhD, Instrumentation Laboratory, 101 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 (e-mail: email@example.com). © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.