Fetal wounds pass from scarless repair to healing with scar formation during gestation. This transition depends on both the size of the wound and the gestational age of the fetus. This study defines the transition period in the fetal rat model and provides new insight into scarless collagen wound architecture by using confocal microscopy. A total of 16 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were operated on. Open full-thickness wounds, 2 mm in diameter, were created on fetal rats at gestational ages 14.5 days (E14; n = 10), 16.5 days (E16; n = 42), and 18.5 days (E18; n = 42) (term = 21.5 days). Wounds were harvested at 24 (n = 18 per gestational age) and 72 hours (n = 24 per gestational age). Skin at identical gestational ages to wound harvest was used for controls. The wounds were fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, antibody to type I collagen, and Sirius red for confocal microscopic evaluation. No E14 rat fetuses survived to wound harvest. Wounds created on E16 fetal rats healed completely and without scarring. E16 fetal rat hair follicle formation and collagen architecture was similar to that of normal, nonwounded skin. Wounds created on E18 fetal rats demonstrated slower healing; only 50 percent were completely healed at 72 hours compared with 100 percent of the E16 fetal rat wounds at 72 hours. Furthermore, the E18 wounds healed with collagen scar formation and without hair follicle formation. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that the collagen fibers were thin and arranged in a wispy pattern in E16 fetal rat wounds and in nonwounded dermis. E18 fetal rat wounds had thickened collagen fibers with large interfiber distances. Two-millimeter excisional E16 fetal rat wounds heal without scar formation and with regeneration of normal dermal and epidermal appendage architecture. E18 fetal rat wounds heal in a pattern similar to that of adult cutaneous wounds, with scar formation and absence of epidermal appendages. Confocal microscopy more clearly defined the dermal architecture in normal skin, scarless wounds, and scars. These data further define the transition period in the fetal rat wound model, which promises to be an effective system for the study of in vivo scarless wound healing.