Lymphedema is a progressive disease of the lymphatic system arising from impaired lymphatic drainage, accumulation of interstitial fluid, and fibroadipose deposition. Secondary lymphedema resulting from cancer treatment is the most common form of the disease in developed countries, affecting 15% to 40% of patients with breast cancer after lymph node dissection. Despite recent advances in microsurgery, outcomes remain variable and, in some cases, inadequate. Thus, development of novel treatment strategies is an important goal. Research over the past decade suggests that lymphatic injury initiates a chronic inflammatory response that regulates the pathophysiology of lymphedema. T-cell inflammation plays a key role in this response. In this review, the authors highlight the cellular and molecular mechanisms of lymphedema and discuss promising preclinical therapies.