Capsular contracture is the most common complication following breast augmentation. Recently, prophylaxis studies aiming to inhibit the release of profibrotic substances to prevent capsular contracture have gained in importance. This study investigated the effects of cromolyn sodium, montelukast, and zafirlukast on capsular contracture in a rat model.
Thirty female Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, sham, cromolyn sodium, montelukast, and zafirlukast. Intraperitoneal injections were administered daily to the sham (1 ml per day), cromolyn sodium (10 mg/kg per day), montelukast (10 mg/kg per day), and zafirlukast (1.25 mg/kg per day) groups 1 month before surgery. Miniature breast implants were then placed on the backs of the rats in each group. Injections were continued for the next 3 months. The rats were subsequently killed, and the capsules were harvested and assessed histopathologically. The histopathologic outcomes were acute inflammation status, inflammation severity, synovial metaplasia, foreign body reaction, mast cell count, and capsular thickness.
The cromolyn sodium, montelukast, and zafirlukast groups had less acute inflammation and lower mean inflammation severity scores, foreign body reaction occurrence, mast cell counts, and capsular thickness than the control and sham groups (p < 0.05). These parameters were better in the cromolyn sodium group than in the montelukast and zafirlukast groups (p < 0.05).
Cromolyn sodium appears to inhibit capsular contracture more efficiently than montelukast and zafirlukast. This report may be a pioneer study for the prophylactic use of cromolyn sodium in capsular contracture.
Clinical Relevance Statement:
The prophylactic administration of cromolyn sodium appears to reduce capsular contracture more efficiently than that of montelukast and zafirlukast. This report might constitute a pioneer study for the prophylactic use of cromolyn sodium in capsular contracture.