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Involvement of PDGF-BB and IGF-1 in Activation of Human Schwann Cells by Platelet-Rich Plasma

Sowa, Yoshihiro M.D., Ph.D.; Kishida, Tsunao Ph.D.; Tomita, Koichi M.D., Ph.D.; Adachi, Tetsuya M.D.; Numajiri, Toshiaki M.D., Ph.D.; Mazda, Osam M.D., Ph.D.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: December 2019 - Volume 144 - Issue 6 - p 1025e-1036e
doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000006266
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Background: Platelet-rich plasma contains high concentrations of growth factors that stimulate proliferation and migration of various cell types. Earlier experiments demonstrated that local platelet-rich plasma administration activates Schwann cells to improve axonal regeneration at a transected peripheral nerve lesion. However, the optimal concentration of human platelet-rich plasma for activation of human Schwann cells has not been determined, and mechanisms by which platelet-rich plasma activates Schwann cells remain to be clarified.

Methods: Human Schwann cells were cultured with various concentrations of platelet-rich plasma in 5% fetal bovine serum/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium. Cell viability, microchemotaxis, flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to assess proliferation, migration, cell cycle, and neurotrophic factor expression of the human Schwann cells, respectively. Human Schwann cells were co-cultured with neuronal cells to assess their capacity to induce neurite extension. Neutralizing antibodies for platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were added to the culture to estimate contribution of these cytokines to human Schwann cell stimulation by platelet-rich plasma.

Results: An addition of platelet-rich plasma at 5% strongly elevated proliferation, migration, and neurotrophic factor production of human Schwann cells. Both PDGF-BB and IGF-1 may be involved in mitogenic effect of platelet-rich plasma on human Schwann cells, and PDGF-BB may also play an important role in the migration-inducing effect of platelet-rich plasma. Neutralization of both PDGF-BB and IGF-1 cancelled the promoting effect of platelet-rich plasma on neurite-inducing activity of human Schwann cells.

Conclusion: This study may suggest the optimal concentration of platelet-rich plasma for human Schwann cell stimulation and potential mechanisms underlying the activation of human Schwann cells by platelet-rich plasma, which may be quite useful for platelet-rich plasma therapy for peripheral nerve regeneration.

CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, V.

Kyoto and Osaka, Japan

From the Departments of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Immunology, and Dental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine; and the Department of Plastic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University.

Received for publication November 2, 2018; accepted May 7, 2019.

Related digital media are available in the full-text version of the article on www.PRSJournal.com.

Disclosure:The authors have declared that no financial disclosure.

Yoshihiro Sowa, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji Kajii-cho 465, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan, sowawan@kpu-m.ac.jp

Copyright © 2019 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons