Platelet-rich plasma contains high concentrations of growth factors that stimulate proliferation and migration of various cell types. Earlier experiments demonstrated that local platelet-rich plasma administration activates Schwann cells to improve axonal regeneration at a transected peripheral nerve lesion. However, the optimal concentration of human platelet-rich plasma for activation of human Schwann cells has not been determined, and mechanisms by which platelet-rich plasma activates Schwann cells remain to be clarified.
Human Schwann cells were cultured with various concentrations of platelet-rich plasma in 5% fetal bovine serum/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium. Cell viability, microchemotaxis, flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to assess proliferation, migration, cell cycle, and neurotrophic factor expression of the human Schwann cells, respectively. Human Schwann cells were co-cultured with neuronal cells to assess their capacity to induce neurite extension. Neutralizing antibodies for platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were added to the culture to estimate contribution of these cytokines to human Schwann cell stimulation by platelet-rich plasma.
An addition of platelet-rich plasma at 5% strongly elevated proliferation, migration, and neurotrophic factor production of human Schwann cells. Both PDGF-BB and IGF-1 may be involved in mitogenic effect of platelet-rich plasma on human Schwann cells, and PDGF-BB may also play an important role in the migration-inducing effect of platelet-rich plasma. Neutralization of both PDGF-BB and IGF-1 cancelled the promoting effect of platelet-rich plasma on neurite-inducing activity of human Schwann cells.
This study may suggest the optimal concentration of platelet-rich plasma for human Schwann cell stimulation and potential mechanisms underlying the activation of human Schwann cells by platelet-rich plasma, which may be quite useful for platelet-rich plasma therapy for peripheral nerve regeneration.
Kyoto and Osaka, Japan
From the Departments of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Immunology, and Dental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine; and the Department of Plastic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University.
Received for publication November 2, 2018; accepted May 7, 2019.
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Disclosure:The authors have declared that no financial disclosure.
Yoshihiro Sowa, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji Kajii-cho 465, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan, firstname.lastname@example.org