In FGFR2 craniosynostosis, midfacial hypoplasia features oculo-orbital disproportion and symptomatic exorbitism. Clinical consequences may mandate surgery at a young age to prevent globe subluxation, corneal ulceration, and potential loss of vision. Monobloc osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis (monobloc distraction) seek to correct exorbitism. A report of the age-related impact of monobloc osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis on orbital volume, globe volume, and globe protrusion is presented.
Computed tomographic scan data from 28 Crouzon-Pfeiffer patients were assessed at preoperative, early postoperative, and 1-year follow-up time points. Orbital volumes, globe volumes, and globe protrusions were measured by manual and semiautomatic segmentation techniques, and these were compared to 40 age-matched controls.
Crouzon-Pfeiffer syndrome orbital volumes are significantly small, and are significantly overexpanded by distraction to endpoints correcting symptomatic exorbitism. Globe volumes are significantly larger than controls under 5 years, do not independently correlate with globe protrusion, and are unaffected by surgery. Correlation between orbital volume expansion and reduction of globe protrusion is not significant. Age-related variations of postoperative growth potential occur to 1 year postoperatively. The Crouzon-Pfeiffer syndrome FGFR2 orbit exhibits early growth acceleration followed by premature growth arrest at 10 to 14 years.
Orbital volume expansion by monobloc osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis is not the sole determinant of reduced globe protrusion. Mean volume relapse of the orbit at 1 year is insignificant across the series. Derived Crouzon-Pfeiffer growth curves suggest that “early functional monobloc” in infants occurs on a background of dynamic orbital growth, which remains programmed to a Crouzon-Pfeiffer FGFR2 phenotype and aligns with the incidence of delayed clinical regression and later secondary surgery.
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