Although certain medical societies have released guidelines on the use of social media, plastic surgery, with its inherent visual nature and potential for sensationalism, could benefit from increasing direction regarding the ethical use of social media. The authors hypothesized that although general platitudes for use exist in the literature, guidelines articulating the boundaries of professional use are nonspecific. Systematic searches of MEDLINE, Embase.com, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were completed on January 18, 2017. Searches consisted of a combination of Medical Subject Headings terms and title and abstract keywords for social media and professionalism concepts. In addition, the authors manually searched the three highest impact plastic surgery journals (ending in October of 2017). Two authors screened all titles and abstracts. Studies related to clinical medicine, patient care, and the physician-patient relationship were included for full-text review. Articles related to surgery merited final inclusion. The initial search strategy yielded 954 articles, with 28 selected for inclusion after final review. The authors’ manual search yielded nine articles. Of the articles from the search strategy, 10 were published in the urology literature, eight were published in general surgery, six were published in plastic surgery, three were published in orthopedic surgery, and one was published in vascular surgery. Key ethical themes emerged across specialties, although practical recommendations for professional social media behavior were notably absent. In conclusion, social media continue to be a domain with potential professional pitfalls. Appropriate use of social media must extend beyond obtaining consent, and plastic surgeons must adhere to a standard of professionalism far surpassing that of today’s media culture.