After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the A-frame configuration of anterior facial buttresses, recognize the importance of restoring anterior projection in frontal sinus fractures, and describe an alternative design and donor site of pericranial flaps in frontal sinus fractures. 2. Describe the symptoms and cause of pseudo-Brown syndrome, describe the anatomy and placement of a buttress-spanning plate in nasoorbitoethmoid fractures, and identify appropriate nasal support alternatives for nasoorbitoethmoid fractures. 3. Describe the benefits and disadvantages of different lower lid approaches to the orbital floor and inferior rim, identify late exophthalmos as a complication of reconstructing the orbital floor with nonporous alloplast, and select implant type and size for correction of secondary enophthalmos. 4. Describe closed reduction of low-energy zygomatic body fractures with the Gillies approach and identify situations where internal fixation may be unnecessary, identify situations where plating the inferior orbital rim may be avoided, and select fixation points for osteosynthesis of uncomplicated displaced zygomatic fractures. 5. Understand indications and complications of use for intermaxillary screw systems, understand sequencing panfacial fractures, describe the sulcular approach to mandible fractures, and describe principles and techniques of facial reconstruction after self-inflicted firearm injuries.
Treating patients with facial trauma remains a core component of plastic surgery and a significant part of the value of a plastic surgeon to a health system.