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Indocyanine Green Angiography Use in Breast Reconstruction: A National Analysis of Outcomes and Cost in 110,320 Patients

Chattha, Anmol, B.A.; Bucknor, Alexandra, M.B.B.S., M.Sc.; Chen, Austin D.; Lee, Bernard T., M.D., M.B.A., M.P.H.; Lin, Samuel J., M.D., M.B.A.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: April 2018 - Volume 141 - Issue 4 - p 825-832
doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000004195
Breast: Outcomes Article

Background: Indocyanine green angiography has gained popularity in breast reconstruction for its ability to assess mastectomy skin and tissue flap viability. The authors aim to analyze trends and outcomes associated with indocyanine green angiography use in breast reconstruction.

Methods: Using 2012 to 2014 data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the authors identified breast reconstructions performed with or without indocyanine green angiography use. Trends over time were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Outcomes were assessed using logistic regression and generalized linear modeling.

Results: Over the study period, 110,320 patients underwent breast reconstruction: 107,005 (97.0 percent) without and 3315 (3.0 percent) with indocyanine green angiography use. Usage increased over time: 750 patients (1.9 percent) in 2012, increasing to 1275 patients (3.7 percent) in 2013 (p < 0.001). Smokers (p = 0.018), hypertensive patients (p = 0.046), obese patients (p < 0.001), and those with a higher comorbidity index (p < 0.001) were more likely to undergo indocyanine green angiography. Autologous reconstruction was more frequently combined with its use compared with tissue expander reconstruction (4.5 percent versus 2.1 percent; p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the odds of débridement associated with its use (OR, 1.404; p < 0.001; 95 percent CI, 1.201 to 1.640).

Conclusions: Indocyanine green angiography use in breast reconstruction has increased in recent years and is associated with higher débridement rates. These rates may indicate changing trends for clinicians when deciding whether to débride tissue during breast reconstruction.


Boston, Mass.

From the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School.

Received for publication May 22, 2017; accepted October 4, 2017.

Disclosure:The authors have no financial interest to declare in relation to the content of this article. No funding was received.

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Samuel J. Lin, M.D., M.B.A., 110 Francis Street, Suite 5A, Boston, Mass. 02215,

Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons