After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand how to determine nipple-areola complex positioning on the reconstructed breast. 2. Understand the multitude of local flap and distant graft options for nipple-areola complex reconstruction. 3. Draw at least three fundamental nipple-areola complex reconstruction patterns. 4. Understand the forces that are responsible for flattening of the reconstructed papule. 5. Understand the current techniques used in secondary nipple-areola complex reconstructions.
Nipple-areola complex reconstruction and tattooing represent the final two stages of breast reconstruction. Nipple-areola complex reconstruction is typically accomplished with the use of local flaps, local flaps with augmentation grafts, or a combination thereof. Regardless of the technique used, however, all nipple-areola complex reconstructions lose a degree of projection over time. Options for secondary reconstruction include the use of local tissue flaps alone or in combination with acellular biological matrices.
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Seattle, Wash.; and Denver, Colo.
From the Center for Reconstructive Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center; and the University of Colorado Hospital, University of Colorado.
Received for publication April 30, 2017; accepted October 23, 2017.
Disclosure:The authors have no financial interest to declare in relation to the content of this article.
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Alexander J. Gougoutas, M.D., 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 356410, Seattle, Wash. 98195, firstname.lastname@example.org