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Versatility of the Profunda Artery Perforator Flap: Creative Uses in Breast Reconstruction

Haddock, Nicholas M.D.; Nagarkar, Purushottam M.D.; Teotia, Sumeet S. M.D.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: March 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 3 - p 606e-612e
doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000003053
Breast: Original Articles

Background: Flaps based on the profunda artery perforators were first used for reconstruction of pressure sores, burn contractures, and extremity wounds. Recently, a revised profunda artery perforator flap was introduced for breast reconstruction. However, the flap is rarely used despite interesting reports on its use. The authors present their experience with the profunda artery perforator flap, describing its versatile applications in breast reconstruction.

Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective review of all patients of the lead author who underwent breast reconstruction with profunda artery perforator flaps before January of 2015. Patient demographics, perioperative data, and postoperative complications were recorded and analyzed.

Results: Seventy-three consecutive profunda artery perforator flaps were used to reconstruct 71 breasts. In 21 breasts, a profunda artery perforator flap was used in conjunction with another flap—with a deep inferior epigastric perforator flap (n = 18), a superior gluteal artery perforator flap (n = 1), or as stacked profunda artery perforator flaps (n = 2). The flap failure rate was 2.7 percent. There was one case of clinically apparent fat necrosis. There were no other major flap complications. Donor-site complications included cellulitis in two thighs (2.7 percent) and minor wound dehiscence in six thighs (8.2 percent). All donor-site complications healed satisfactorily by secondary intention without any additional procedures.

Conclusions: The profunda artery perforator flap is a safe and versatile option for breast reconstruction. It can be combined with other flaps when additional volume or skin requirements are present. Flap and donor-site complications are comparable to other free tissue breast reconstruction options.


Dallas, Texas

From the Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.

Received for publication April 17, 2016; accepted August 31, 2016.

Disclosure:The authors have no financial interest to declare in relation to the content of this article.

Nicholas Haddock, M.D., Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 1800 Inwood Road, Dallas, Texas 75235,

Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons