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Plastic Surgery Applications Using Three-Dimensional Planning and Computer-Assisted Design and Manufacturing

Pfaff, Miles J. M.D.; Steinbacher, Derek M. M.D., D.M.D.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: March 2016 - Volume 137 - Issue 3 - p 603e–616e
doi: 10.1097/01.prs.0000479970.22181.53
Special Topics: Technology & Innovations
Press Release

Summary: Three-dimensional analysis and planning is a powerful tool in plastic and reconstructive surgery, enabling improved diagnosis, patient education and communication, and intraoperative transfer to achieve the best possible results. Three-dimensional planning can increase efficiency and accuracy, and entails five core components: (1) analysis, (2) planning, (3) virtual surgery, (4) three-dimensional printing, and (5) comparison of planned to actual results. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of three-dimensional virtual planning and to provide a framework for applying these systems to clinical practice.


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New Haven, Conn.

From Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Yale University.

Received for publication March 25, 2015; accepted November 9, 2015.

Disclosure: The authors have no commercial associations or disclosures that may pose or create a conflict of interest with the information presented in this article.

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Derek M. Steinbacher, M.D., D.M.D., Yale Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 3rd Floor, Boardman Building, 330 Cedar Street, New Haven, Conn. 06520,

©2016American Society of Plastic Surgeons