Three-dimensional analysis and planning is a powerful tool in plastic and reconstructive surgery, enabling improved diagnosis, patient education and communication, and intraoperative transfer to achieve the best possible results. Three-dimensional planning can increase efficiency and accuracy, and entails five core components: (1) analysis, (2) planning, (3) virtual surgery, (4) three-dimensional printing, and (5) comparison of planned to actual results. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of three-dimensional virtual planning and to provide a framework for applying these systems to clinical practice.
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New Haven, Conn.
From Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Yale University.
Received for publication March 25, 2015; accepted November 9, 2015.
Disclosure: The authors have no commercial associations or disclosures that may pose or create a conflict of interest with the information presented in this article.
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Derek M. Steinbacher, M.D., D.M.D., Yale Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 3rd Floor, Boardman Building, 330 Cedar Street, New Haven, Conn. 06520, firstname.lastname@example.org