Vaginal labiaplasty has been described for the management of functional and aesthetic problems associated with protrusion of the labia minora. Despite increasing numbers of procedures performed, there is a paucity of data to guide treatment paradigms. This systematic review aims to establish a simple, unifying classification scheme for labial protrusion and summarize current labiaplasty techniques and practices.
A systematic literature review was performed using the PubMed database. Additional articles were selected after reviewing references of identified articles.
The search returned 247 articles. After applying inclusion criteria to identify prospective and retrospective studies evaluating different techniques, outcomes, complications, and patient satisfaction, 19 articles were selected. Labiaplasty of the labia minora was described in 1949 patients. Seven different surgical techniques were used for labiaplasty, including deepithelialization, direct excision, W-shaped resection, wedge resection, composite reduction, Z-plasty, and laser excision. Patient satisfaction rates for each technique ranged from 94 to 100 percent. The most common postoperative complication for all techniques was wound dehiscence (4.7 percent). Key areas for perioperative patient management were defined.
Labiaplasty is safe and carries a high satisfaction rate. However, current practices remain exceedingly diverse. The authors propose a simplified classification system based on the distance of the lateral edge of the labia minora from that of the labia majora, rather than from the introitus. Key areas for perioperative patient management include patient anesthesia, resection technique used, wound closure, and postoperative care. Further randomized studies using a standardized classification system are required to better compare different techniques and establish best practices.