Uncontrolled postoperative pain may result in significant clinical, psychological, and socioeconomic consequences. Not only does inadequate pain management following surgery result in increased morbidity and mortality but it also may delay recovery, result in unanticipated readmissions, decrease patient satisfaction, and lead to chronic persistent postsurgical pain. Pain is multifactorial in nature, and understanding both the complexity of pain and its side effects is imperative to achieving a successful surgical outcome. In this section, we review the consequences of pain as they pertain to plastic surgery with a focus on the impact of pain on the surgical stress response and risk of wound infections and the effect of improved pain control on flap surgery. Uncontrolled acute postoperative pain may lead to chronic persistent postsurgical pain, which has a high incidence in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. To achieve optimal postoperative analgesia, one must recognize the barriers to effective pain management, including both physician/nursing-related barriers and patient-related barriers, as well as the increasingly common appearance of opioid-tolerant patients.