Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Share this article on:

Comparative Analysis of 18-Month Outcomes and Costs of Breast Reconstruction Flap Procedures

Israeli, Ron M.D.; Funk, Susan M.B.A.; Reaven, Nancy L. M.A.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: March 2014 - Volume 133 - Issue 3 - p 471–479
doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000000064
Breast: Outcomes Article
Watch Video

Background: Data from large-scale studies of breast reconstruction surgery outcomes and downstream costs are lacking. The authors assessed outcomes, patient return rates, and costs across a large, geographically diverse patient population undergoing autologous breast reconstruction.

Methods: Insurance claims for patients undergoing free flap, latissimus dorsi flap, or transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap autologous breast reconstruction were extracted from a U.S. health care database. Claims for an 18-month period after the initial (index) procedure were analyzed to assess episodes of care, complications, breast procedures, and costs.

Results: Of 828 patients (274 free flaps, 302 latissimus dorsi flaps, and 252 TRAM flaps), 35 percent experienced postindex complications: incidences related to implant/graft/mesh and hematoma/seroma were highest in the latissimus dorsi arm (19 percent and 6 percent, respectively); the incidence related to breast necrosis was highest in the free flap arm (8 percent); and that related to wound complications was highest in the TRAM arm (6 percent). Returns for complications were 92.7, 84.4, and 115.5 of 100 patients in the free, latissimus dorsi, and TRAM flap arms (p < 0.05, TRAM flap versus other arms), respectively, and 105.5, 116.6, and 87.7 of 100 patients, respectively, for procedures unrelated to complications (p < 0.05, latissimus dorsi versus TRAM flaps). Nearly all patients returned at least once for treatments unrelated to complications. Mean total costs for index surgery plus postindex events were $56,205, $30,783, and $33,380 in the free, latissimus dorsi, and TRAM flap arms, respectively.

Conclusions: Eighteen-month complication and return rates for postindex events were similar across study arms. The frequency of returns and associated cost of procedures unrelated to complications point to the inherently staged nature of autologous breast reconstruction.


Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Hempstead, N.Y.; and La Cañada, Calif.

From Hofstra University School of Medicine in partnership with North Shore-LIJ Health System; and Strategic Health Resources.

Received for publication April 16, 2013; accepted September 10, 2013.

Presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in New Orleans, Louisiana, October 26 through 30, 2012.

Disclosure: Ron Israeli, M.D., is a consultant to LifeCell Corp. Susan Funk, M.B.A., and Nancy L. Reaven, M.A., received consulting fees and are independent contractors for research work for this study.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. A direct URL citation appears in the text; simply type the URL address into any Web browser to access this content. Clickable links to the material are provided in the HTML text of this article on the Journal’s Web site (

Ron Israeli, M.D., 833 Northern Boulevard, Suite 160, Great Neck, N.Y. 11021,

©2014American Society of Plastic Surgeons