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Local Flaps, Including Pedicled Perforator Flaps: Anatomy, Technique, and Applications

Maciel-Miranda, Alejandro M.D.; Morris, Steven F. M.D., M.Sc.; Hallock, Geoffrey G. M.D.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: June 2013 - Volume 131 - Issue 6 - p 896e–911e
doi: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e31828bd89f
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Learning Objectives: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Discuss the types of local flaps. 2. Analyze the advantages, disadvantages, and applications for each kind of flap. 3. Perform appropriate design and dissection techniques of local flaps. 4. Describe appropriate design and dissection techniques of local perforator and propeller flaps.

Summary: The purpose of this article is to comprehensively review the topic of local flaps. Local flaps are those that are elevated nearby and then transferred to an adjacent wound. Options include geometric local flaps, axial pattern local flaps and a new exciting group of flaps, local perforator flaps. The principles, advantages, disadvantages, and applications for each are carefully analyzed. Local perforator flaps can be harvested virtually anywhere in the body and represent a significant clinical advance, as these can solve a wide variety of clinical challenges. These flaps do require gentle microsurgical dissection technique with careful handling for inset of the flap and simultaneously provide the same advantages of other types of local flaps because they also use nearby tissues with a similar color match, thickness, and texture, with primary donor-site closure possible. Local perforator flaps are another very useful option that undoubtedly will become more popular as more surgeons become more familiar with their use and advantages.

Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; and Allentown, Pa.

From the Division of Plastic Surgery, Dalhousie University; and the Division of Plastic Surgery, Sacred Heart Hospital.

Received for publication February 28, 2012; accepted May 17, 2012.

Disclosure:The authors have no financial interest to declare in relation to the content of this article.

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©2013American Society of Plastic Surgeons