Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Share this article on:

Biphasic Fusion of the Murine Posterior Frontal Suture

Hermann, Christopher D. M.S.; Richards, Megan A. B.S.; Chang, Regina B.S.; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene D.D.S., Ph.D.; Williams, Joseph K. M.D.; Guldberg, Robert E. Ph.D.; Vidakovic, Brani Ph.D.; Schwartz, Zvi D.M.D., Ph.D.; Boyan, Barbara D. Ph.D.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: April 2013 - Volume 131 - Issue 4 - p 727–740
doi: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3182827585
Experimental: Original Articles

Background: Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of cranial sutures early in development. Mice are commonly used to study the mechanisms driving both normal and pathologic cranial suture development. Despite their frequency of use as a model, the time course of bone formation and mineralization during fusion of mouse posterior frontal suture is not well defined.

Methods: To address this, C57Bl/6J mice were euthanized at ages ranging from 6 to 107 days, and the posterior frontal sutures were imaged using micro–computed tomography. Scans were analyzed with an image-processing algorithm that was previously validated with serial histology to quantify both suture fusion and mineral content. The expression profile of genes associated with key developmental time points was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction in both the bone and the dura.

Results: Results demonstrate that the bones of the posterior frontal suture come together during days 10 to 20 and then increase in mineral content and volume between days 21 and 45. The onset of posterior frontal suture fusion was associated with an increase in cartilage-associated genes on day 12. Later mineralization of the suture was associated with an increase in mRNAs for osteoblast differentiation markers, bone morphogenetic proteins, and bone morphogenetic protein inhibitors.

Conclusions: Complete analysis fusion posterior frontal suture shows that it occurs in a discontinuous biphasic manner. The first phase is from days 10 to 20 and involves production of cartilage. A second mineralization phase from days 21 to 45 was seen with both the imaging algorithm and changes in gene expression.


Atlanta, Ga.

From the Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, and the Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology; Emory University School of Medicine; and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta.

Received for publication February 20, 2012; accepted October 25, 2012.

Disclosure: The authors have no commercial associations or financial disclosures related to this article.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the text; simply type the URL address into any Web browser to access this content. Clickable links to the material are provided in the HTML text of this article on the Journal's Web site (

Barbara D. Boyan, Ph.D.; Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 315 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, Ga. 30332-0363,

©2013American Society of Plastic Surgeons