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History of Microsurgery

Tamai, Susumu M.D., Ph.D.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: December 2009 - Volume 124 - Issue 6S - p e282-e294
doi: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181bf825e

Summary: In the mid-1500s, the techniques of vascular ligature and vascular suture were developed sporadically by several pioneers in this field. However, vascular surgery became realistic experimentally as a result of the work by Carrel and Guthrie in the early 1900s, in which they performed replantations and transplantations of several composite tissues and organs, including amputated limbs, kidneys, and others using experimental animals. In contrast, the development of heparin by Howell and Holt in 1918 accelerated the rate of these types of operations being performed with increasing success in humans. Since the first use of a monocular microscope for ear surgery by Nylen in 1921 and a binocular microscope by Holmgren in 1923, in addition to the timely developments of the Zeiss operating microscope, microsurgical instruments, and suture materials, microsurgery was born in several surgical disciplines in the ensuing 50-year period. The application of microvascular surgery and microneurosurgery in the fields of hand, plastic, and reconstructive surgery resulted in revolutionary advances in clinical replantation and transplantation of composite tissues and more allotransplantations.

Kashihara City, Nara, Japan

From the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nara Medical University, and the Nara Hand Surgery Institute, Nara Seibu Hospital.

Received for publication June 14, 2007; accepted February 11, 2009.

Disclosure: The author has no financial interests to declare in relation to the content of this article.

Susumu Tamai, M.D., Ph.D., 1017 Toichi-cho, Kashihara City, Nara 634-0008, Japan,

Correction: History of Microsurgery

On pages 288e and 289e, Tables 1 and 2 were reversed. Please see the attached file for the corrected tables.

This correction is published in the March 2010 issue of the Journal.

©2009American Society of Plastic Surgeons