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Microarray Analysis of the Role of Regional Dura Mater in Cranial Suture Fate

Kwan, Matthew D. M.D.; Wan, Derrick C. M.D.; Wang, Zhen M.D.; Gupta, Deepak M. M.D.; Slater, Bethany J. M.D.; Longaker, Michael T. M.D., M.B.A.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: August 2008 - Volume 122 - Issue 2 - p 389-399
doi: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e31817d6244
Experimental: Original Articles

Background: Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of cranial sutures, results in serious neurologic and morphologic abnormalities when left untreated. Surgical excision of the fused sutures and remodeling of the skull remains the standard therapy. Development of novel, minimally invasive therapies for craniosynostosis will undoubtedly be dependent on a more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying this abnormality. Significant evidence suggests the influence of regional dura mater on the behavior of the overlying suture complex. The mouse model has been instrumental in investigating this observation because of the natural juxtaposition of the posterior frontal suture, which fuses early in life, with the other cranial sutures, which remain patent.

Methods: The authors used microarray analysis to compare genomic changes in the dura mater underlying the posterior frontal and sagittal sutures of mice. Suture-associated dura mater was harvested from mice before (postnatal day 5), during (postnatal day 10), and after (postnatal day 20) posterior frontal suture fusion (n = 20 mice for each of the three time points).

Results: Microarray results confirmed differential regulation of genes involved in paracrine signaling, extracellular matrix, and bone remodeling between the dura mater underlying the fusing posterior frontal suture and the patent sagittal suture.

Conclusions: These data confirm global differences in gene expression between regional dura mater underlying fusing and patent sutures. These results provide further insight into potential molecular mechanisms that may play a role in cranial suture biology.

Stanford, Calif.

From the Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, and the Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine.

Received for publication September 24, 2007; accepted February 4, 2008.

The first two authors contributed equally to this article.

Disclosure: The authors have no commercial affiliations or conflicts of interests to disclose.

Michael T. Longaker, M.D., M.B.A., Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 257 Campus Drive, Stanford, Calif. 94305-5148,

©2008American Society of Plastic Surgeons