A good aesthetic outcome is an important endpoint of breast cancer treatment. Subjective ratings, direct physical measurements, measurements on photographs, and assessment by three-dimensional imaging are reviewed and future directions in aesthetic outcome measurements are discussed. Qualitative, subjective scales have frequently been used to assess aesthetic outcomes following breast cancer treatment. However, none of these scales has achieved widespread use because they are typically vague and have low intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Anthropometry is not routinely performed because conducting the large studies needed to validate anthropometric measures (i.e., studies in which several observers measure the same subjects multiple times) is impractical. Quantitative measures based on digital/digitized photographs have yielded acceptable results but have some limitations. Three-dimensional imaging has the potential to enable consistent, objective assessment of breast appearance, including properties (e.g., volume) that are not available from two-dimensional images. However, further work is needed to define three-dimensional measures of aesthetic properties and how they should be interpreted.