Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Share this article on:

History and Current Concepts in the Analysis of Facial Attractiveness

Bashour, Mounir M.D., C.M., Ph.D.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: September 1st, 2006 - Volume 118 - Issue 3 - p 741-756
doi: 10.1097/01.prs.0000233051.61512.65
Cosmetic: Special Topic

Background: Facial attractiveness research has yielded many discoveries in the past 30 years, and facial cosmetic, plastic, and reconstructive surgeons should have a thorough understanding of these findings. Many of the recent studies were conducted by social, developmental, cognitive, and evolutionary psychologists, and although the findings have been published in the psychology literature, they have not been presented in a comprehensive manner appropriate to surgeons.

Methods: The author reviews the findings of facial attractiveness research from antiquity to the present day and highlights and analyzes important concepts necessary for a thorough understanding of facial attractiveness.

Results: Four important cues emerge as being the most important determinants of attractiveness: averageness (prototypicality), sexual dimorphism, youthfulness, and symmetry.

Conclusions: A surgeon planning facial cosmetic, plastic, or reconstructive surgery can potentially gain both profound insight and better quality surgical results by appreciating these findings.

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

From the University of Toronto.

Received for publication April 7, 2005; accepted August 17, 2005.

Readers may also refer to the online version of the article at the Journal's Web site ( for additional materials.

Mounir Bashour, M.D., C.M., Ph.D., 4175 Sainte Catherine Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3Z 3C9, Canada,

©2006American Society of Plastic Surgeons