CME REVIEW ARTICLESafety and efficacy of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in young children: a summary for the new era of routine vaccinationZANGWILL, KENNETH M. MD; BELSHE, ROBERT B. MDAuthor Information KMZ is Member of and Associate Professor of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, UCLA Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; RBB is the Adorjan Professor of Internal Medicine, Director, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology and Director, Center for Vaccine Development, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO. Chief Editors’ Note: This is the second of four articles to be published in 2004 for which a total of up to 4 Category 1 CME credit hours can be earned. Instructions for how credit hours can be earned appear at the end of the Table of Contents. The CME activity contained within this series is supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Roche Laboratories. Honoraria are provided to authors of all articles. Accepted for publication Dec. 12, 2003. Reprints not available. KMZ has disclosed that he is the recipient of grant/research funding from MedImmune, Inc. RBB has disclosed that he is the recipient of grant/research funding from Wyeth and is a consultant for MedImmune. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: March 2004 - Volume 23 - Issue 3 - p 189-197 doi: 10.1097/01.inf.0000116292.46143.d6 Buy Take the CME Test Metrics Abstract Increasing use of influenza vaccine in children is expected as this important virus becomes more widely recognized as a major cause of morbidity in young children. Clinicians and third party payers must consider the implications of national vaccine use recommendations, with their current focus on young children, on their practices and on the community at large. Two influenza vaccines are available in the United States, an inactivated, trivalent intramuscular formulation (TIV) which is approved for use among children ≥6 months of age; and a live, attenuated intranasal trivalent preparation (LAIV) indicated for healthy persons 5 to 49 years of age. This review summarizes available data regarding the safety and efficacy of TIV, in comparison with LAIV, with particular attention to children <9 years of age, the population for whom two doses of vaccine are recommended for first time vaccination. It is apparent that relatively few data are available on the safety of TIV in young children, that important age-specific differences in TIV vaccine efficacy exist and that LAIV appears similar to TIV with regard to safety and efficacy in younger children, but no head-to-head comparison of these two licensed products is available. © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.