Eighty-five children were diagnosed with culture-confirmed nontuberculous mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis within the MYCOMED surveillance network from 2004 to 2013. The mean incidence sharply increased from 0.57 to 3.7 per 100,000 children per year, after the discontinuation of mandatory bacillus Calmette and Guérin immunization in 2007. Cases were documented as Mycobacterium avium (62.3%), Mycobacterium intracellulare (15.3%) and Mycobacterium lentiflavum (12.9%). Outcome was favorable in all, with or without surgery or antimycobacterial treatment.
From the *Infectious Diseases
†Bacteriology, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes, France
‡Bacteriology, Bretonneau University Hospital, Tours, France
§Bacteriology, Hôpital Nord University Hospital, Saint-Etienne, France
¶Bacteriology, Hotel Dieu University Hospital, Nantes, France
‖Bacteriology, Bordeaux University Hospital, Bordeaux, France
**Microbiology, Bretagne-Atlantique Hospital, Vannes, France
††Microbiology, Yves Le Foll Hospital, St Brieuc, France
‡‡Bacteriology, Brest University Hospital, Brest, France
§§Bacteriology, Dupuytren University Hospital, Limoges, France
¶¶Microbiology, Bretagne Sud Hospital, Lorient, France
‖‖Microbiology, Cornouailles Hospital, Quimper, France.
Accepted for publication November 26, 2017.
The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.
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Address for correspondence: Pierre Tattevin, MD, PhD, Infectious Diseases and Intensive Care Unit, Pontchaillou University Hospital, 2 Rue Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes Cedex, France. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.