Review ArticlesCurrent Aspects of Pediatric Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Antimicrobials in Japan: Importance of the Promotion of Population PK/PD AnalysisShoji, Kensuke MD, PhD*; Saito, Jumpei PhD†; Nakamura, Hidefumi MD, PhD‡; Matsumoto, Kazuaki PhD§; Oda, Kazutaka PhD¶; Takesue, Yoshio MD, PhD‖,**; Miyairi, Isao MD, PhD*,†† Author Information From the *Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Subspecialties †Department of Pharmacy ‡Department of Research and Development Supervision, National Center for Child Health and Development §Division of Pharmacodynamics, Keio University Faculty of Pharmacy, Tokyo ¶Department of Pharmacy, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto ‖Department of Infection Prevention and Control, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya **Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Tokoname City Hospital, Tokoname ††Department of Pediatrics, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan Accepted for publication June 4, 2022 K.S. received payment for lectures from Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Astellas, AbbVie GK, and G.H.N. received grants from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, consulting fees from Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Sato Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Nippon Zoki Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., Pfizer Japan Inc., Eli Lilly Japan K.K. and Astra Zeneca K.K., and payment for lectures from Shionogi & Co., Ltd. and Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. K.M. received grant support from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd. and Sumitomo Pharma Co., Ltd. and payment for lectures from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd. Y.T. received grant support from Shionogi & Co., Ltd. and payment for lectures from Astellas Pharma Inc. and MSD Japan. I.M. received payment for lectures and consultations from Sanofi, Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Astellas Pharma Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Fujifilm Toyama Chemical Co., Biomelieux Japan, Abbott Japan Co. and AbbVie GK. The other authors have have no conflicts of interest to disclose. This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI (grant no. 21K16332). Address for correspondence: Kensuke Shoji, MD, PhD, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Subspecialties, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157 8535, Japan. E-mail: [email protected]. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: October 2022 - Volume 41 - Issue 10 - p e418-e423 doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000003622 Buy Metrics Abstract Pharmacologic knowledge is important for pediatricians conducting feasible pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies or applying effective antimicrobial therapies in children. Because of the difficulties in conducting PK/PD studies in children, antimicrobial PK/PD data in children are still limited. To fill in the lack of knowledge, promotion of population PK/PD analysis, which allows us to handle sparse sampling data from individual patients, is important because it is considered a suitable methodology to conduct PK/PD studies in children with limited blood drug concentration data for PK/PD analysis. Population PK/PD analysis is also useful in the clinical setting to provide individualized optimal dosage for each patient with various conditions. Here we summarized the current aspects of pediatric PK/PD studies of antimicrobials in Japan from clinical and research perspectives, specifically focusing on the importance of population PK/PD analysis. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.