Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Share this article on:

Trends in Drug Resistance Prevalence, HIV-1 Variants and Clinical Status in HIV-1-Infected Pediatric Population in Madrid: 1993-2015 Analysis

Rojas Sánchez Patricia PhD; Domínguez, Sara MSc; Jiménez De Ory, Santiago MSc; Prieto, Luis MD, PhD; Rojo, Pablo MD, PhD; Mellado, Pepa MD, PhD; Navarro, Marisa MD, PhD; Delgado, Rafael MD, PhD; Ramos, José Tomas MD, PhD; Holguín, África PhD; for the Madrid Cohort of HIV-1 Infected Children and Adolescents Integrated in the Pediatric Branch of the Spanish National AIDS Network (CoRISPe)
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: Post Acceptance: October 06, 2017
doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001760
HIV Reports: PDF Only


The expanded use of long-term antiretroviral treatments in infected children may exacerbate the problem of drug resistance mutations (HIVDR) selection, which can compromise treatment efficiency.


We describe the temporal trends of HIVDR and the HIV-1 variants during 23 years (1993-March 2016) in the Madrid cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents.


We selected patients with at least one available HIV-1 pol sequence/genotypic resistance profile, establishing different groups according to the sampling year of first resistance data. We determined the prevalence of transmitted (TDR) or acquired (DRM) drug resistance mutations, the drug susceptibility among resistant viruses and HIV-1 variants characterized by phylogeny across time.


A total of 245 pediatric patients were selected, being mainly female, Spanish native, perinatally infected and carrying HIV-1 subtype B. At first sampling most pediatric patients were on ART and heavily pretreated. During 1993-2016, TDR was found in 13 (26%) of 50 naive children (NNRTI, 14.6%; NRTI, 10.4%; PI, 8.7%). DRM appeared in 139 (73.2%) of 190 pretreated patients (NRTI, 64.5%; NNRTI, 36%; PI; 35.1%). DRM to NNRTI was higher in last 5 years. Non-B variants infected 14.5% of children and adolescents of the Madrid Cohort, being mainly intersubtype recombinants (76.5%), including complex unique recombinant strains. They caused 3.4% infections before 2000, rising to 85.7% during 2011-2016.


Periodic surveillance resistance and molecular epidemiology studies in long-term pretreated HIV- infected pediatric populations are required to optimize treatment regimens. Results will permit a better understanding of long-time dynamics of viral resistance and HIV-1 variants in Spain.

Sources of support (acknowledgments): This study was supported by Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2013-2016 and Instituto de Salud Carlos III (PI15/01005 grant) and cofinanced by the European Development Regional Fund “A way to achive Europe” (ERDF) and CIBER CB06/02/0053. This study is included in the “Subprograma de Inmigración y Salud from CIBERESP (Spain)”.

Disclosure statement: The authors have no conflicts of interest or funding to disclose.

Correspondence: África Holguín. Adress: HIV-1 Molecular Epidemiology Laboratory, Microbiology and Parasitology Department, Hospital Ramón y Cajal-IRYCIS and CIBER-ESP, Madrid (28034), Spain. Phone: 913368153. E-mail:

Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.