HIV ReportsThe Impact of Maternal Syphilis and Associated Factors on HIV Vertical TransmissionHoff Calegari, Lisiane MD, MSc*; Friedrich, Luciana MD, PhD*,†; Rech Astolfi, Vitória MD‡; Kerber, Juliana Maria MD‡; Andrades, Gustavo Santos MD‡; Da Silva, Clécio Homrich MD, PhD† Author Information *Neonatology Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre †Pediatrics Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul ‡Medical School, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Accepted for publication March 6, 2022 The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Address for correspondence: Lisiane Hoff Calegari, MD, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. E-mail: [email protected]. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: July 2022 - Volume 41 - Issue 7 - p 563-565 doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000003543 Buy Metrics Abstract Maternal syphilis may increase HIV vertical transmission or it may be a marker of other risk factors. In a Brazilian historical series, HIV vertical transmission risk was higher in newborns exposed to maternal syphilis-HIV co-infection than in newborns exposed to maternal HIV infection alone. Maternal syphilis was a risk factor for HIV vertical transmission independent of education and prenatal visits but not independent of maternal elevated HIV viral loads or inadequate maternal antiretroviral treatment. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.