Solithromycin is a new macrolide-ketolide antibiotic with potential effectiveness in pediatric community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Our objective was to evaluate its safety and effectiveness in children with CABP.
This phase 2/3, randomized, open-label, active-control, multicenter study randomly assigned solithromycin (capsules, suspension or intravenous) or an appropriate comparator antibiotic in a 3:1 ratio (planned n = 400) to children 2 months to 17 years of age with CABP. Primary safety endpoints included treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) and AE-related drug discontinuations. Secondary effectiveness endpoints included clinical improvement following treatment without additional antimicrobial therapy.
Unrelated to safety, the sponsor stopped the trial prior to completion. Before discontinuation, 97 participants were randomly assigned to solithromycin (n = 73) or comparator (n = 24). There were 24 participants (34%, 95% CI, 23%–47%) with a treatment-emergent AE in the solithromycin group and 7 (29%, 95% CI, 13%–51%) in the comparator group. Infusion site pain and elevated liver enzymes were the most common related AEs with solithromycin. Study drug was discontinued due to AEs in 3 subjects (4.3%) in the solithromycin group and 1 (4.2%) in the comparator group. Forty participants (65%, 95% CI, 51%–76%) in the solithromycin group achieved clinical improvement on the last day of treatment versus 17 (81%, 95% CI, 58%–95%) in the comparator group. The proportion achieving clinical cure was 60% (95% CI, 47%–72%) and 68% (95% CI, 43%–87%) for the solithromycin and comparator groups, respectively.
Intravenous and oral solithromycin were generally well-tolerated and associated with clinical improvement in the majority of participants treated for CABP.