The prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) with additional resistance to fluoroquinolones or second-line injectables (MDRFQ/SLI)/extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) in children is high in Mumbai. There are limited therapeutic options available in management of such children. Carbapenems, although approved for this indication, requires 2 to 3 daily injections, which are cumbersome. Bedaquilline (Bdq) and Delamanid (Dlm), the new antitubercular drugs still remain inaccessible to this subset of patients caused by conditional approvals. Hence, newer strategies to combat MDRFQ/SLI/XDR-TB needs to be explored.
To study feasibility and interim outcomes of a “salvage regimen” using home-based carbapenem therapy through peripherally inserted central catheter as part of a longer (18–20 months) optimized background regimen including Dlm or Bdq or both in pediatric MDRFQ/SLI/XDR-TB patients who failed a standard MDR-TB regimen under the National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme in Mumbai, India.
Design and Methods:
Retrospective descriptive analysis study. National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme medical records of all MDRFQ/SLI/XDR-TB patients enrolled at the pediatric TB clinic at BJ Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai who were initiated on such “salvage regimen” during the period between April 2018 and December 2020 were retrospectively studied. Treatment outcomes and adverse events were described.
Of the 15 patients enrolled, mean age of the patient population was 12.53 ± 2.47 years and the female:male ratio was 13:2. Seven patients had XDR-TB while 8 patients had MDRFQ/SLI. Most common adverse event noted was dyselectrolytemia (3 patients). Catheter-related complications were reported in 5 patients and included catheter blockage, leak, and thrombosis. Sputum culture conversion was reported in all of the patients. One child mortality was reported and 2 patients were lost to follow up during study period.
Home-based meropenem therapy using peripherally inserted central catheter is feasible with few adverse effects. This can be a promising strategy in the management of MDRFQ/SLI/XDR-TB when an effective oral regimen cannot be otherwise constituted and needs to be explored further.