Among children with HIV infection, opportunistic illness (OI) rates decreased after introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1997. We evaluated whether such decreases have continued.
Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National HIV Surveillance System for children with HIV living in the US during 1997–2016 was used to enumerate infants experiencing the first OI by birth year and OIs among all children <13 years of age (stratified by natality). We calculated the time to first OI among infants using Kaplan-Meier methods.
Among infants born during 1997–2016, 711 first OIs were diagnosed. The percentage of the first OIs diagnosed in successive 5-year birth periods was: 60.0% (1997–2001), 24.6% (2002–2006), 11.3% (2007–2011), and 3.4% (2012–2016). For every OI, the number of first cases decreased nearly annually. Time to first OI increased in successive birth periods. Among children <13 years of age, 2083 OI were diagnosed, including Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, candidiasis, recurrent bacterial infection, wasting syndrome, cytomegalovirus, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteriosis and herpes simplex virus. The rate (#/1000 person-years) decreased overall (60–7.2) and for all individual OIs. Earlier during 1997–2016, rates for all OIs were higher among foreign-born than US-born children but later became similar for all OIs except tuberculosis.
Among children with HIV in the US, numbers and rates of all OIs decreased during 1997–2016. Earlier, OI rates were highest among non-US-born children but were later comparable with those among US-born children for all OIs except tuberculosis.